Common connective words

Addition 附加信息

In addition = also

Playing sport is fun, in addition it keep you fit.



apart from that = in addition to it


moreover 还有内容没说完

Mary is too shy to enter the speech contest. Moreover, she is not old enough to meet the enter requirement.

furthermore 还有另外观点

I think the death penalty is morally wrong. Furthermore, there’s no evidence that it is effective in discouraging crime.

what’s more

Playing sport is fun, what’s more, it keeps you fit.



likewise 同样如此

He lent money, made donations and encouraged others to do likewise.


as well (as)

Playing sport is fun, as well as keeping you fit.

not only

Not only is playing sport fun, but it also keep you fit.


Consequence / Cause & Effect

as a result / consequence


therefore 正式阶段



in that case

in this way

under the circumstances

As a result, we are obliged to buy multinational products whether we like them or not.

Thus, we can see that more men than women held qualifications at the lower and higher levels of education

I went to a party last night. Therefore, I’m tired this morning.

In that case, how should I respond?  







Plainly 非常明显的






I don’t like playing sports. However, I enjoy watching them.
The food tasted wonderful. However, I was sick for three days afterward.

whereas 然而 / while

Many people disagree with the proposals whereas other agree with them

nonetheless 尽管如此,但是

I don’t believe that this idea will work. Nonetheless, I should give it a try.

nevertheless 然而,虽然如此

The self-discipline required to drag myself out of bed eleven minutes earlier than usual was considerable.  Nevertheless, I managed to creep down into the living-room for two days before anyone found me out.  [Nce3 Lesson50 New Year Resolutions]

in contrast 比较起来;与此相反

The birth rate in many European countries has dropped. In contrast, the birth rate in some African countries has risen

by contrast 相比之下

A run-down watch is still a watch and can be rewound. An old watch, by contrast, becomes so worn and unreliable that it eventually is not worth mending. [Nce4 Lesson 37 The process of ageing ]

Holiday hotels tend to cater for one nationality of visitors especially, sometimes exclusively. Camping sites, by contrast, are highly cosmopolitan. [Nce4 Lesson 47 The great escape ]

By contrast, more women held undergraduate diplomas (70%) and marginally more women reached degree level (55%).

by comparison 相比之下 / Compared to

On motor-ways you can, at least, travel fairly safely at high speeds, but more often than not, the greater part of the journey is spent on narrow, bumpy roads which are crowded with traffic. By comparison, trips by sea offer a great variety of civilized comforts.  [Nce3 Lesson44 Speed and comfort]

Satellites orbiting round the earth have provided scientists with a vast amount of information about conditions in outer space. By comparison, relatively little is known about the internal structure of the earth.  [Nce3 Lesson47 Through the earth’s crust]

on the contrary 正相反

This book is not easy. On the contrary, it is extremely difficult.

on the other hand

Without any rules, children become mischievous. But on the other hand, they will lack creativity if they obey too many rules.

compare / compared to

Britain is a small country compared with China.

in common with 与......一样


even if

even though


if 如果



You can’t board the plane unless you have a boarding ticket.

as long as

You can stay, as long as you don’t mind sleeping on the sofa.

provided that

you can come to the party provided that you don’t bring that ghastly friends of you.

on condition that

You can borrow the bike on condition that you return it by five o’clock.

in case of
In case of emergency, sound the alarm and notify the supervisor at once.

supposing/what if

Supposing/what if he doesn’t turn up, we should we do then?





prerequisite 前提条件



Certain conditions must be met before the Peace Talks can begin.

I would not move to London under any circumstance. It’s awful!

A good standard of English is prerequisite for studying at a British University.

What are the entry requirements for university in your country?



rather than

instead of 而不是

alternatively 另外


We should reduce the demand for drugs rather than control the supply.

We should control the supply instead of focusing the demand for them.

The government should ban the use of cars in the cities. Alternatively, they could charge people large sums of money to use car there.




In conclusion



For example

For instance